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Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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La sélection participative en France : des plantes annuelles aux ligneux

Migeot, J. ; Santi, F. ; Dowkiw, A. ; Dufour, J.
Revue Forestière Française, 2014, 66 (2) : 151-162.
Obtenir de bonnes variétés pour des espèces forestières marginales n’en disposant pas ne peut passer par un programme de sélection classique, trop coûteux et trop long. Chez certaines plantes annuelles et certaines espèces forestières tropicales, la sélection ou domestication participative parvient à de bons résultats et à une meilleure diffusion des variétés. Cette démarche a été amorcée en France en prenant comme modèle le Merisier, pour lequel on dispose de nombreux dispositifs anciens et de cultivars utilisables comme témoins, pour évaluer des variétés et sélectionner de nouveaux individus tout en réalisant des mises au point méthodologiques. Elle peut s’élargir aux autres espèces : 1) nous montrons que les témoins merisiers sont utilisables pour d’autres espèces quand les exigences pédoclimatiques sont similaires ; 2) la sélection très intensive en pépinière permettrait de créer rapidement des vergers à graines